The main treatment for kidney cancer that has not spread outside the kidneys (stages 1 and 2) is surgery. Normally, if the tumor is small, a small part of the kidney that contains the tumor is removed. In some cases, however, due to the size of the tumor it may be necessary to remove the entire kidney (nephrectomy).

In some situations where the tumor is small, treatments can be used to destroy the cancer cells using heat (radiofrequency ablation) or extreme cold (cryotherapy) instead of surgery.

There is currently no standard treatment that can reduce the risk of kidney cancer coming back after surgery (adjuvant treatment). However, clinical trials are trying to determine whether targeted therapy or biological therapy treatments can help reduce the risk of some types of cancer returning.


Even when the cancer has spread outside the kidney, surgery to remove kidney may be an option. This can help slow the speed with which the cancer grows and control it.

When kidney cancer has spread outside the kidney, the primary treatment is targeted therapy.

Sometimes, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy are used.


Your treatment will be planned by a group of specialists who will meet to discuss and agree upon the best possible treatment plan for you.

This multidisciplinary team will include:

- A surgeon (who specializes in your type of cancer)

- A urologist - a surgeon who specializes in treating cancers of the kidney

- A medical oncologist

- A radiotherapy oncologist

- Radiologists who help analyze x-rays and scans.

- Pathologists who advise on the type and extent of the cancer.

Other health professionals may be included, such as a palliative care doctor (who is specialized in controlling symptoms), a nutritionist, a physical therapist, and occupational therapists, and a psychologist.


You may feel afraid of cancer treatment due to the side effects it can have. Although treatments for esophageal cancer can produce adverse effects, you will be given help to control them.

The treatment can be given for various reasons and the possible benefits vary from person to person and from situation to situation. Your doctor can tell you whether the primary aim of the treatment is to cure the cancer, control it for some time, or reduce the symptoms and improve quality of life. They can also tell you about the possible side effects of the treatment and whether these are temporary or permanent.