Causes and risk factors
Certain issues can affect a person's likelihood of developing bladder cancer. These are called risk factors. Just because you have a risk factor does not necessarily mean you will have bladder cancer.
Smoking is the main risk factor for bladder cancer. About 1 out of every 3 cases of bladder cancer may be caused by smoking. The longer you smoke and the more you consume, the greater the risk.
- Age, y
Bladder cancer is more common in older people. It is rare in people under 40.
Bladder cancer is more common in men than in women.
Repeated urinary-tract infections and stones in the bladder that go untreated have been related to a more uncommon type of bladder cancer called squamous-cell cancer.
- Previous cancer treatment
Radiotherapy in the pelvis to treat another type of cancer and a chemotherapy treatment called cyclophosphamide may increase the risk of developing bladder cancer.
- Family history
The risk of developing bladder cancer increases slightly if you have a close family member who has had the disease.