The cells are obtained from the patient him or herself and remain frozen while the patient is undergoing chemotherapy. During the period in which the patient is given a rest from chemotherapy and using growth factors to increase the number of stem cells in the blood. This makes it possible to gather these cell colonies by using a process called cytapheresis. Because patients are receiving their own cells, the procedure is tolerated better by patients, thus reducing the risk of certain complications associated with transplants.

The risk of relapse with this transplant is higher than with allogeneic transplants, though the treatment-associated toxicity is lower.